sopwith-pupIntroduction

In 1914 a mixture of Sopwith types appeared with the RFC and RNAS. From 1916 the company concentrated on the production of single-seat scout (fighter) aircraft powered by rotary engines but also experimented with other types. Many aspects of the period of swift development in aircraft design represented by the Great War can be followed through the products of the company. This guide features all Sopwith aircraft which saw use either on squadron operations or on limited operational trials during the Great War. The suggested reading list, at the end of this guide, will enable those who seek more information, particularly about the varied data associated with some of the types, and further analysis to find what they require.

Contents:

1914

Tabloid ; Other Pre-war Sopwiths; Type 807 Folder Seaplane.

1915

Two-seater Scout; Type 806 Gun Bus; Type 860 Seaplane; Schneider; Baby.

1916

1½ Strutter; Pup.

1917

Triplane (Clerget); Hamble Baby; Hispano-Suiza Triplane.

B1 Bomber; Camel.

1918

Dolphin; Snipe; T1 (Cuckoo); Salamander; Buffalo

 

The Aircraft

1914

Tabloid

Single seat fighting biplane

The Tabloid was a remarkable pre-war design and was the forerunner of a stable of rotary-engined fighters (scouts) which established the reputation of Sopwith as a manufacturer of first-class, reliable and well-built machines.  A few Tabloids had experimental mountings for Lewis guns including one with the gun firing through the propeller disc, deflector plates protecting the blades.  On 8 October 1914, using 20lb. bombs, Flt Lt R L G Marix destroyed Zeppelin Z IX in a raid on Dusseldorf.  Four went to the Dardanelles aboard HMS Ark Royal.  Two variations, built for the 1914 Gordon Bennett air race, served with the Fast Flight at Hendon.

tabloid

Operational Service

May 1914 – May 1915, with RFC and RNAS

Production

36

Airframe

Wooden structure, fabric and ply covered.

Engine

One 80hp Gnome

Armament

One Lewis gun, Small (20lb) bombs

Dimensions

Span: 25ft 6in Length: 20ft 4in Height: 8ft 5in Wing area: 241 sq ft

Weights

Empty: 730lb Loaded: 1,120lb

Performance

Max speed: 92 mph at sea level. Endurance: 3½ hours

Other Pre-war designs

Several other pre-war Sopwith types were taken up by the RNAS for limited war use.

The Bat Boat, the first flying boat to be built in Britain, was used on patrols from Scapa Flow until Nov 1914.

Six Three-Seater Tractor Biplanes served with the RNAS from Dunkirk and Gt. Yarmouth.

The sole Sociable saw RNAS service at home and briefly in Belgium.

At least one Anzani Tractor Seaplane saw service in the early days of the war.

One example of the six Type 806 Gun Bus machines saw brief service in France. It was a pusher type which mounted a free-firing machine gun in the front of the nacelle.  Thirty more were ordered and sub-contracted to Robey of Lincoln.  Slow production meant that by the time some were ready two-seat pushers were obsolete and the machines were withdrawn, stored and scrapped.

Two Pusher Seaplanes (Nos 123 & 124) saw little service and were deleted in February 1915 as unsatisfactory.

Of five Greek Seaplanes two served at Killingholme, one was wrecked at Great Yarmouth and two were converted to landplanes.

The Special Seaplane, apparently with an 80ft wing span, proved difficult to take off with full load and was dismantled in April 1915.

Two Daily Mail Seaplanes, for the round-Britain race, saw some service, the second as a landplane.  A contract for thirty was cancelled.

Two Type 137 tractor seaplanes served experimentally (including torpedo-dropping) and on patrol work until Jan 1916.

Three Type C seaplanes were delivered in 1914 but did little work before loss or deletion by March 1915.

three-seater

Type 807 Folder

Two-seat twin-float seaplane

This type was supplied to the RNAS from July 1914.  It used folding wings, a system for which Horace Short had taken out a patent.  Sopwith paid Short a royalty of £15 to use the system.  807s served on patrol duties at Calshot and Gt Yarmouth, in the Dardanelles and East Africa, and on the seaplane carrier HMS Ark Royal.  These aircraft were underpowered and some had trouble with flooding floats.

807

Operational service

1914 - 1915

Production

12

Airframe

Wooden structure, fabric and ply covered

Engine

One 100hp Gnome Monosoupape

Armament

Small bombs

Dimensions

N/A

Weights

N/A

Performance

Max Speed: 80 mph

1915

Two-Seater Scout

Patrol aircraft

Known to officialdom as the Two-seater Scout this type was, to a great extent, a landplane version of the Type 807 seaplane.  It was used for anti-Zeppelin patrols from Gt. Yarmouth, Hendon, and Killingholme but with such a low service ceiling there was little prospect of success.

807

Operational service

March 1915 and withdrawn by the end of 1915 - served with RNAS.

Production

24

Airframe

Wooden structure, fabric and ply covered.

Engine

One 100hp Gnome Monosoupape

Armament

Grenades, pistols, rifles.  Small bombs.

Dimensions

Wing Span: 36ft.

Weights

N/A

Performance

Speed: 80 mph.  Service ceiling: 3,000ft.

Type 806 Gun Bus

Two-seat pusher gun carrier

One example of this type saw brief service in France. The rest were delivered to Detling, Eastchurch and Hendon. The 806 was a pusher type which mounted a free-firing Lewis gun in the front of the nacelle.  Thirty more were ordered, and sub-contracted to Robey of Lincoln.  Seventeen complete machines were delivered by Robey.  The rest of the order was made up in spares.  However, by the time the order was completing, late in 1915, two-seat pushers were already obsolete.  Remaining 806s were withdrawn in the summer of 1916.

806

Operational service

1915 - one aircraft to France.

Production

23 assembled machines and 13 sets of spares.

Airframe

Wooden structure, fabric and ply covered.

Engine

One 100hp Gnome Monosoupape/One 110hp or 150hp Sunbeam (authorities vary).

Armament

One Lewis gun.  Underwing bomb carriers fitted (Robey).

Dimensions (Robey)

Wing span: 50ft.  Length: 32ft. 6in. Wing area: 474 sq. ft.

Weights

N/A

Performance

Max Speed: 80 mph.

Admiralty Type 860

Two-seat torpedo-carrying twin-float seaplane

Lifting an 810lb torpedo demanded a powerful engine.  Sopwith finally managed the task with the 860 powered by a 225hp Sunbeam engine.  An 860 first lifted a torpedo on 27 Jan 1915, at Calshot.  The 860 saw limited RNAS service: three at RNAS Isle of Grain, at least one at each of RNAS Calshot, Dover, Dundee, Felixstowe, Great Yarmouth, and Killingholme. Four were sent to HMS Engadine and Ben-my-Chree but were not much used.  Two were sent to the Aegean for service with HMS Ark Royal.  The 860 never launched a torpedo in action.  Official reports described the 860 as unsatisfactory and the Admiralty decided to use Short Bros., which had more seaplane experience than Sopwith, as its main seaplane supplier.

860

Operational service

1915 -1916 - Served with RNAS

Production

22 (18 known to have been delivered)

Airframe

Wooden structure, fabric and ply covered

Engine

One 225hp Sunbeam Mohawk

Armament

One Lewis gun.  One 14" 810lb torpedo

Dimensions

N/A

Weights

N/A

Performance

N/A

Schneider

Single seat fighting seaplane

This type was similar to the floatplane Tabloid which had won the Schneider Trophy in April 1914. Most Schneiders had a Lewis gun on the centre section arranged to fire above the propeller disc.  Flight Sub-Lieutenant A F Brandon achieved a late success on this type on 21 Nov 1916 by shooting down an enemy aircraft at Mudros.  Flt Lt. Welsh launched successfully from a deck ramp aboard the seaplane carrier HMS Campania on 6 Aug 1915.  It had been found that the Schneider's floats were insufficiently robust for taking off from water on operations.

schneider

Operational service

Early 1915 - (at least) Nov 1916 - Served with RNAS

Production

136

Airframe

Wooden structure, fabric and ply covered

Engine

One 100hp Gnome Monosoupape

Armament

One Lewis gun.  Various bomb loads - e.g. 1-65lb./4-16lb.

Dimensions

Span: 25ft. 8in.  Length: 22ft. 10in.  Height: 10ft.  Wing area: 236 sq. ft.

Weights

Empty: 1,226lb.  Loaded: 1,715lb.

Performance

Max speed: 87 mph  Service ceiling: 8,000ft.

Baby

Single seat fighting seaplane

The chief difference from the Schneider was the Baby's Clerget engine and the new horseshoe-shaped cowling made the Baby's appearance noticeably different from that of the Schneider. Used for anti-submarine and anti-airship work, the Baby was delivered to the RNAS from September 1915.  Some had centre-section Lewis guns but later models had a Lewis synchronised to fire through the propeller disc. Babies served until the end of the war.

baby

Operational service

Sept 1915 - Nov 1918 - served with RNAS

Production

286

Airframe

Wooden structure, fabric and ply covered

Engine

One 110 hp or 130 hp Clerget

Armament

One Lewis gun and a 65lb. Bomb or 2-65lb. bombs

Dimensions

Wing span: 25ft. 8in.  Length: 23ft. Height: 10ft.  Wing area: 236 sq. ft.

Weights with 130 hp Clerget

Empty: 1,226lb.  Loaded: 1,715lb.

Performance with 130 hp Clerget

Max. speed: 100 mph.  Endurance: 2¼ hours

1916

1½ Strutter

Two-seat scout/single and two-seat light bomber

The 1½ Strutter was the first RFC and RNAS fighter to have a forward-firing synchronised Vickers machine gun.  Pilots liked the Strutter.  Its forward-firing gun was, to start with, a surprise for the Germans.  As the Germans introduced more manœuvrable aircraft, from the Albatros DI onwards, the Strutter began to struggle.  July 1917 saw the start of its replacement on the Western Front by improved aircraft.  In Home Defence squadrons they were largely replaced by the end of 1917 with only 78 squadron keeping them until July 1918.  The bomber version carried out strategic raids on German industry as well as attacking  Zeppelin sheds.

one-and-a-half-strutter

Operational service

April 1916 - July 1918

Served with RFC, RNAS, French, Belgian and American air forces and some went to Russia.  Also Romania, Latvia and Japan

Production

1,534 in the UK and c. 4,500 under licence in France

Airframe

Wooden structure, fabric and ply covered

Engine

One 110 hp or 130 hp Clerget. (Other power plants also used)

Armament

One fixed forward-firing synchronised Vickers gun and one free Lewis gun in rear cockpit.

4 - 65lb Bombs or more light bombs (single seat bomber)

Dimensions

Wing span: 33ft. 6in.  Length: 25ft. 3in.  Height: 10ft. 3in.  Wing area: 346 sq. ft.

Weights

Empty: 1,305lb.  Loaded: 2,150lb.

Performance with 130hp Clerget

Max speed: 107 mph at sea level.  Service ceiling: 15,500ft.

Pup

Single-seat scout

The success of Pups in the early spring of 1917 caused German pilots to seek to avoid combat. Von Richthofen: "We saw immediately that the enemy aircraft was superior to ours." McCudden: "[The Pup] could turn twice to an Albatros' once." The Pup's first victory claim was by F/ Sub-Lt. S.J. Goble on 24 September 1916, against an LVG two-seater.  Many Pups saw service on aircraft carriers and warships with flying-off platforms.  Such was the speed of development in fighting aeroplanes that by the summer of 1917 the Pup began to find itself in need of replacement in France.  It was still, however, of use in Home Defence, and at sea.  Beardmore produced a modified version for naval use.

pup

Operational service

Sept 1916 - May 1919 - served with RFC and RNAS

Production

1,770

Airframe

Wooden structure, fabric covered.  Steel tube wingtips and tail unit with fabric covering

Engine

One 80 hp Le Rhone/Gnome or Clerget, or 100 hp Gnome monosoupape

Armament

One fixed forward-firing synchronised Vickers gun or an upward-firing Lewis gun. Some armed with Le Prieur rockets.

Dimensions

Wing span: 26ft. 6in.  Length: 19ft. 3¾in.  Height: 9ft. 5in.  Wing area: 254 sq. ft.

Weights Le Rhone

Empty: 787lb.  Loaded: 1,225lb.

Performance Le Rhone

Max. speed: 111½ mph at sea level.  Service ceiling: 17,500.  Endurance: 3 hours

1917

Triplane (Clerget)

Single-seat scout

The Triplane's narrow chord wings were designed, as was the second wing's eye level location, to improve pilot visibility.  Ailerons on all six wings gave it remarkable manœuvrability and with that linked to its impressive climb rate it proved much better than its main opponent, the Albatros DIII.  Responding to German pilots' stories of the Triplane's superiority Fokker developed his own version, the Dr1.  The Sopwith Triplane was phased out in favour of the Camel from July 1917. The first Triplane (N500) did service trials in June 1916 and was very well received.  Squadron equipment began in Dec 1916 but the Triplane units began large scale service on the Western Front in Feb 1917.

triplane-clerget

Operational service

Feb - Dec 1917 - served with RNAS, French Navy, & Russia (one machine)

Production

145

Airframe

Wooden structure, fabric covered

Engine

One 110 hp or 130 hp Clerget. (Latter on most aircraft)

Armament

One fixed forward-firing synchronised Vickers gun. (Two on some aircraft)

Dimensions

Wing span: 26ft. 6in.  Length: 18ft. 10in.  Height: 10ft. 6in.  Wing area: 231 sq. ft.

Weights with 130hp Clerget

Empty: 1,101lb.  Loaded: 1,541lb.

Performance with 130hp Clerget

Max speed: 117 mph at 5,000ft.  Service ceiling: 22,00ft.  Endurance: 2 hours

Fairey Hamble Baby

Single-seat anti-submarine patrol seaplane

The Hamble Baby retained the Sopwith Baby fuselage but otherwise was re-designed by Fairey with new wings, floats and tail.  Fairey's patent camber changing gear enabled the introduction of flaps which could also be used as ailerons.  The camber increase provided by the flaps increased lift for the heavier Hamble Baby.  74 Babies built by Parnall were converted to landplanes and were known as Converts. Hamble Babies served from coastal stations at home and abroad and from seaplane carriers.

fairey-hamble-baby

Operational service

1917 - 1918.  Served with RNAS/RAF

Production

180

Airframe

Wooden structure, fabric covered

Engine

One 110 hp or 130 hp Clerget.

Armament

One fixed forward-firing synchronised Lewis gun. 2 - 65lb bombs

Dimensions

Wing span: 27ft. 9¼in.  Length: 23ft. 4in.  Height: 9ft. 6in.  Wing area: 246 sq. ft.

Weights with 110hp Clerget

Empty: 1,386lb.  Loaded: 1,946lb.

Performance

Max speed: 92 mph at sea level.  Service ceiling: 7,500ft.  Endurance: 2 hours.

Hispano-Suiza Triplane

Single-seat scout

Two Hispano-Suiza engined Triplanes were built.  One (N510) was lost early because tail flutter caused the tail assembly to break off.  The second of this type (N509) was briefly tested at Dunkirk and later flew four sorties from Manston against German bombers in the period May to July 1917.  It was damaged in a collision in August and deleted in October 1917.

hispano-suiza-triplane

Operational service

1917 - Trial work - only one aircraft

Airframe

Wooden structure, fabric covered

Engine

One 150hp Hispano-Suiza

Armament

One forward-firing synchronised Vickers machine gun

Dimensions

Wing span: 28ft. 6in.  Length: 23ft. 2in.  Height: 10ft. 6in.  Wing area: 340sq.ft.

Weights

N/A

Performance

Max speed: 120 mph at sea level

B1 Bomber

Single-seat bomber

Two examples of this type were built.  The first spent two weeks in May 1917 with 5 Naval squadron at Dunkirk.  It flew on operations beside 5N's DH4s but did not warrant a production order.

b1

Operational service

1917 - Trial work - only one aircraft

Airframe

Wooden structure, fabric covered

Engine

One 200hp Hispano-Suiza

Armament

20 - 25lb bombs.  One fixed forward-firing synchronised Lewis gun during service trials only

Dimensions

Wing span: 38ft. 6in.  Length: 27ft.   Height: 9ft. 6in.

Weights

Empty: 1,700lb.  Loaded: 3,055lb.

Performance

Max speed: 118½ mph at 10,000ft.  Service ceiling: 19,000ft.  Endurance: 3¾ hours

F1 and 2F1 Camel

Single-seat scout

The Camel was designed to be a better armed fighter than the Pup and Triplane but to retain their manœuvrability.  For the novice, or those used to the pleasant flying characteristics of the Pup and Triplane, the Camel was difficult to master but once mastered its striking manœuvrability proved a winning attribute.  The Camel became a dominant player in the air war.  Upper wing Lewis guns eliminated glare for night-fighting pilots.  2F1s replaced Pups at sea.  2F1 N6812 flown by Lt Culley, and launched from a lighter towed by HMS Redoubt, shot down Zeppelin L53 on 10 August 1918.

camel

Operational service

June 1917 - Nov 1919

Served with RFC, RNAS, RAF, Australian Flying Corps, U.S. Air Service

Production

5,825

Airframe

Wooden structure, fabric covered

Engine

One 110 hp or 130 hp or 140hp Clerget. 110hp or 180hp Le Rhone, 100hp or 150hp Gnome monosoupape. 150hp B.R.1

Armament

F1: 2 fixed forward-firing synchronised Vickers gun.

2F1: Usually 1 forward-firing Vickers and 1 Lewis on upper wing. Home defence versions: 2 Lewis on upper wing.

Ground attack: 4 - 25lb bombs

Dimensions F1

Wing span: 28ft.  Length: 18ft. 9in.  Height: 8ft. 6in.  Wing area: 231 sq. ft.

Weights with 130hp Clerget

Empty: 929lb.  Loaded: 1,453lb.

Performance with 130hp Clerget (with 150hp BR1)

Max. speed: 117 mph at sea level (125mph).  113 mph at 10,000ft. (121mph)

Service ceiling: 19,000ft. (22,000ft.).  Endurance: 2½ hours (2½ hours)

1918

5F1 Dolphin

Single-seat scout

Inspired by the need for pilots to have a good view above and around whilst in air combat the Dolphin's designer, Herbert Smith, was obliged by the aerodynamic and centre-of-gravity considerations caused by the positions he chose for the pilot and the top wing to put the bottom wing in a back-staggered location.  On trials in France both Capt Bishop and Lt Lewis commented favourably on its manœuvrability. Engine troubles and other teething problems led to delays before production aircraft began to appear in October 1917.  In France 19 Squadron became fully-equipped in early January 1918.  The intended four-gun arrangement did not always win favour in the field, with pilots opting to dispose of one or both of the Lewis guns.  Over 75% of the production was in storage at the war's end - awaiting engines.

dolphin

Operational service

Dec 1917 - July 1919.  Served with RFC/RAF

Production

2,074 (not including first prototypes)

Airframe

Wooden structure, fabric and ply covered. Back staggered wings. Centre section of steel tubing.

Engine

One 200hp Hispano-Suiza

Armament

Two forward-firing synchronised Vickers guns on nose and one/two fixed Lewis gun(s) mounted on front centre-section wing spar. Some pilots removed the Lewis guns.

Dimensions

Wing span: 32ft. 6in.  Length: 22ft. 3in.  Height: 8ft. 6in.  Wing area: 263¼ sq. ft.

Weights

Empty: 1,410lb.  Loaded: 1,959lb.

Performance

Max speed: 136 mph at sea level.  114 mph at 15,000ft.  Service ceiling: 20,000ft.

7F1 Snipe

Single-seat scout

The Snipe turned tightly like other rotary-engine types but was easier to control than the Camel.  The Snipe was first flown as a single-bay machine with flat sides. As it was developed it acquired two-bay wings, a curved fuselage and a new tail.  43 Sqn began to equip with Snipes as replacements for its Camels in August 1918, 4 Sqn AFC re-equipped in early October, and 78 Sqn had one on charge in October. 201 Sqn hosted Maj Barker's ten-day instructor's front line refresher during which (27 Oct) he won a VC in an epic dog-fight with at least fifteen Fokker DVIIs - shooting down three and forcing down two others. The action developed after he had forced down a Rumpler C type.

snipe

Operational service

Aug 1918 - Nov 1926.  Served with RAF and Australian Flying Corps

Production

2,172 (not including prototypes)

Airframe

Wooden structure, fabric, ply and sheet metal covered

Engine

One 150hp BR2.

Armament

Two forward-firing synchronised Vickers guns on nose.

Dimensions

Wing span: 31ft. 1in.  Length: 19ft. 9in.  Height: 8ft. 9in.  Wing area: 271 sq. ft.

Weights

Empty: 1,312lb.  Loaded: 2,020lb.

Performance

Max speed: 125 m.p.h. at sea level.  121 m.p.h. at 10,000ft.  Service ceiling: 20,000. Endurance: 3 hours.

T1 (Cuckoo)

Single-seat torpedo carrier

The Admiralty asked Sopwith, in late 1916, to produce designs for aircraft capable of carrying one or two 18" torpedoes.  However, no sense of urgency surrounded the provision of a torpedo bomber for the Fleet at a time when the pressing need was for fighters for the Front.  Cuckoo, as it was later named, production was initially entrusted to two companies with no experience of aeroplane construction: Fairfield and Pegler.  Blackburn, whose production of Babies was coming to an end, had to be brought in to rescue the programme.  The preferred Hispano-Suiza engines were allocated to the SE5As and the heavier Sunbeam Arabs were substituted.  Beatty's October 1917 scheme to attack the German fleet in harbour thus came to nothing as the T1s were not ready in time.

cuckoo

Operational service

Oct 1918 - April 1923.  Served with RAF

Production

232

Airframe

Wooden structure, fabric covered

Engine

One 200hp Sunbeam Arab

Armament

One 18" torpedo.

Dimensions

Wing span: 46ft. 9in.  Length: 28ft. 6in.  Height: 10ft. 8in.  Wing area: 566 sq. ft.

Weights

Empty: 2,199lb.  Loaded: 3,883lb.

Performance

Max speed: 103½ m.p.h. 2,000ft.  Service ceiling: 12,100ft  Endurance: 4 hours.

TF2 Salamander

Single-seat ground attack fighter

As the two examples of the TF1 Camel interim trench fighter flew to France for trials on 7 March 1918, the specially designed successor was already taking shape and made its first flight on 27 April and flew to France on 9 May for operational trials.  The front fuselage was made of 650lbs of armour plate.  The Vickers guns had 1,000 rounds per gun instead of the usual 750.  At least one Salamander was flown, experimentally, with a battery of eight downward firing Lewis guns.  In mid-August Captain J W Pinder test flew an example and reported that it had manœuvrability in the Bristol Fighter class and might cope with an Albatros below 10,000ft.  Production was increasing swiftly in the autumn of 1918 but only two aircraft were in France on 11 November 1918.

salamander

Operational service

1918 - Trial work - only two aircraft to France

Production

210 completed from an order of 1,100

Airframe

Wooden structure, fabric, ply and sheet metal covered with armour plate.

Engine

One 230hp BR2

Armament

Two forward-firing synchronised Vickers guns on nose.

Dimensions

Wing span: 31ft. 2?in.  Length: 19ft. 6in.  Height: 9ft. 4in.  Wing area: 272 sq. ft.

Weights

Empty: 1,844lb.  Loaded: 2,512lb.

Performance

Max speed: 125 m.p.h. at sea level.  Service ceiling: 13,000ft.    Endurance: 1½ hours.

Buffalo

Two-seat contact patrol fighter

The first prototype Buffalo went to France for trials and arrived at Marquise on 20 October 1918.  It was quite well received but its trials were incomplete when the Armistice came into force.  No production resulted.

buffalo

Operational service

1918 - Trial work - only one aircraft to France

Production

Two prototypes

Airframe

Wooden structure, fabric, ply and sheet metal covered with armour plate.

Engine

One 230hp BR2

Armament

One forward-firing synchronised Vickers gun on nose and one Lewis gun in rear cockpit..

Dimensions

Wing span: 34ft. 6in.  Length: 23ft. 3½in.  Height: 9ft. 6in.  Wing area: 326 sq. ft.

Weights

Empty: 2,178lb.  Loaded: 3,071lb.

Performance

Max speed: 114 m.p.h. at 1,000ft.  Service ceiling: 9,000ft

 

Suggested Reading

A E Bramson, Pure Luck - The Authorised Biography of Sir Thomas Sopwith, 1888 -1989, 1990

M Davis, Sopwith Aircraft, Marlborough, 1999

H F King, Sopwith Aircraft, London, 1981

F K Mason, The British Fighter since 1912, London, 1992

F K Mason, The British Bomber since 1914, London, 1994

B Robertson, Sopwith -The Man and his Aircraft, Letchworth, 1970

J W R Taylor, Combat Aircraft of the World, London, 1969

O Thetford, British Naval Aircraft since 1912, London, 1962

Illustrations

Most of the photographs used in this guide come from the FlightGlobal Archive which is to be found at Flight Global Archive. The owners of this material have generously allowed its use as "an open - access resource for everyone interested in aviation".  For details please see their website.

The photographs of the Baby, Pup, Triplane and Camel do not come from the FlightGlobal Archive but are from the author's collection.

View full size slideshow of the images used in this article (click expand icon to see full  size slideshow).

Article contributed by: David Seymour MA, MPhil (WFA Education)

 

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