Various lists have been published of the names and curriculum vitae of the officers who formed the General Staff of the High Commands of the combatant nations during the First World War. Commanders who a Tommy, Fritz, Jacques, Ivan or Abdul would have called 'Brass Hats or Top Brass' because of the ever grander amounts of gold (real or pseudo) braid they wore on their hats and/or their epaulettes, as their ranks increased to the Everest of Field Marshal or the equivalent.
Most of the lists of Great War Commanders have been prepared by professional war historians for professional war historians and, usually, are either rather wordy or very brief. The different references also show, on occasion, a disturbing variability in time, place and event.
Therefore, what follows is a relatively short, concise list, in alphabetical order, of the most prominent (through success or failure) of the Great War commanders. It is presented in what is intended as an outline résumé of the careers in the Great War of these historical military personages of over 80 years ago. I trust the selected list will be of interest to other amateur Great War war historians or the 'just interested'.
The information is given in a standardized format as follows: Surname: Given name(s) - nickname, if known; Nationality, Rank (highest attained); Dates of birth and death;
Also given are descriptions of the more important Great War appointments and posts held, along with additional information and/or observations (where indicated) and the areas, or actions, of particular distinction, failure or renown. Dates, unless given in full (e.g. November 1916) are abbreviated (i.e. Nov/16). The location 'Western Front' covers the war zone of France and Belgium and, since many units moved frequently between locations in the two countries, and given that the place names are so well known, specific mention of these countries is not always made.
From the above it will be seen that no attribution has been given to civilian ranks with the exception of entries such as King of the Belgians, or Minister of War, that were pertinent to the commander's military role in the Great War.
There were no women Commanders. It will also be observed that both of the dates of birth and death of all the entries can be given with confidence, as all of the listed are deceased.
List of Commanders
1. ALANBROOK, Alan Francis; British; Field Marshal; (1883-1963):
British Army (Royal Field Artillery). Western Front: Third Army, Artillery Staff Officer Arras Apr/14. One of the developers of the 'creeping barrage' concept first used in The 1st Battle of the Somme in 1916.
2. ALBERT I, Belgian; King of the Belgians; (1875-1934):
Western Front:Commander in Chief of Belgian army Aug/14-Nov/18.
Symbol of Belgian resistance to Germany. After fall of Antwerp, retreated behind River Yser for duration of war. Commander of Allied Army Group that broke out of Ypres Salient in Sep-Oct/18.
3. ALEXANDER, Harold; British; Field Marshal; (1891-1961); MC, DSO, Legion d'Honneur:
British Army. (Irish Guards). Western Front: Brigadier at 27. Flanders Aug-Nov/14, Aisne Sep/14, Somme Jul-Sep/16. Churchill described him as 'the personification of a British Officer and gentleman'.
4. ALEXSEEV (ALEXEYEV), Mikhail Vasilevich; Russian; Marshal;(1857 -1918):
Russian Army. Eastern Front:Chief of Staff Russian Southwestern Front. Aug/14-Mar/15. Successful capture of Przemysl, Mar/14. Russian Northwestern Front, Mar-Sep/15. Tsar's Chief of Staff Sep/15-Nov/16. Lost field command, Nov/16 due to heart attack. Returned to service as Commander in Chief Jan/17. Dismissed May/17. Recalled Sep/17. Resigned after 12 days Sep/17.
5. ALLENBY, Edmund Henry Hynman - BULL; British; Field Marshal; (1881-1936):
British Army (Cavalry, Inniskilling Dragoons). Western Front: Cavalry Division and Corps Aug/14-Oct/15. Mons Aug/14. Messines Ridge Oct-Nov/14 and 1st Battle of Ypres Oct/14. V Corps May- Oct/15. Frezenberg Ridge May/15. Third Army Oct/15-Jun/17 at The Somme Jul/16 and Arras/Vimy Ridge Apr/17. Palestine Front: Commander in Chief, Egyptian Expeditionary Force Jun/17- Nov/18. Successful in 1917-18 Palestine Campaign: 3rd Battle Gaza Mar-Oct/17, Jerusalem Dec/17, Megiddo Sep/18 and Damascus Sep-Oct/18. Victor over the Turks.
6. ATATURK, Mustafa, Kemal; Turkish; General, Pasha; (1881-1938):
Turkish Army. Military Attaché, Bulgaria Aug/14-Feb/15. Opposed Turkish Alliance with Germany. Dardanelles/Gallipoli: Fifth Army, 19th Division Feb/15-Jan/16. Strategically important successes at Sari Bair Apr/15 and Aug/15. Balkans Front, Corps Commander, Anatolia 1916-17. Palestine Front: Syria, Seventh Army Feb-Aug/18. Last defence of Aleppo with unified Sixth, Seventh, Eighth Armies Oct/1918. Held out until Armistice Nov/1918.
7. BEATTY, David; British; First Sea Lord; (1871-1936):
Royal Navy. Grand Fleet's 1st Battle-cruiser Squadron 1913-16. Success in actions at Heligoland Bight Aug/14, Dogger Bank Jan/15 and Jutland May-Jun/16. Grand Fleet Dec/16-Nov/18. Failed to achieve destruction of German Grand Fleet but successfully held it at bay for duration of war.
8. BIRDWOOD, William - BIRDY or BILL; British; Field Marshal; (1865-1951):
British Army. Dardanelles/Gallipoli: ANZAC Corps Feb-Dec/15. Planned Aug/15 Offensive and final withdrawal Dec/16. Named ( by Hamilton) 'The Soul of ANZAC'. Western Front: Australian Imperial Force (AIF) Mar/16-Nov/18. ANZAC I Corps Mar/16-Nov/17. First Battle of the Somme - Pozières Jul/16. Also Fifth Army May-Nov/18.
9. BRUSILOV, Aleksey (Alexei) Alexeevich; Russian; General; (1853-1926):
Russian Army (Cavalry). Eastern Front: Russian Eighth Army 1914-16. Successful offensive (Brusilov) gave break-through on Austro-Hungarians Jun/16-May/17, to coincide with British Somme attacks, and caused collapse of Austro-Hungarian Army. Commander in Chief Jun-Aug/17. Dismissed Aug/17. The million casualties suffered by his troops were a probable contributory cause in March 1917 Revolution.
10. BULOW, Karl von; German; Generalfeldmarschall; (1846-1921):
German Army. Western Front: Second Army Aug/14-Mar/15. 'Left wing' of the Schlieffen Plan 'hook'. Retreat from the Marne. Lost field command due to heart attack Mar/15. Resigned 1916.
11. BYNG, Julian Hedworth George; British; Field Marshal; (1862-35):
British Army (Cavalry). Egypt 1914. Western Front: 3rd Cavalry Division Aug/14. Cavalry Corps 1915. Dardanelles/Gallipoli: IX Corps Aug/15-May/16 at Sulva. Planned successful withdrawal Dec/15. Western Front: Canadian Corps May/16-June/17. Capture of Vimy Ridge Apr/17. Third Army Jun-Nov/18. Planned Cambrai tank assault Nov-Dec/17. Successful limitation of German Offensive Mar/18. Successful British offensive, broke Hindenburg Line Sep/18.
12. CALLWELL, Charles Edward; British; Major General; (1859-1928):
British Army. Director of Military Intelligence 1914-18.
13. CARDONA, Luigi; Italian; Field Marshal; (1850-28):
Italian Army. Italian Front: Italian Chief of Staff Aug/14-Nov/17. Defeated by Austro-German-Hungarian Army on Isonzo Front and Caporetto 1915-17 with immense losses. Supreme War Council 1917.
14. CASTELNAU, Noel Marie Joseph Edouard; French; Maréchal; (1851-1944):
French Army. Joint-author of French Plan XIV. Western Front: Second Army Aug/14-Jun/15. Successfully defended Nancy Aug-Sep/14. Army Group Centre Jun/15-Feb/16. Unsuccessful 2nd Champagne offensive Sep-Nov/15. Chief of Staff to Joffre Feb-Dec/16. Successful defence of Verdun 1916. Retired temporarily Dec/16. Eastern Army Group, Lorraine 1918.
15. CONRAD von HOTZENDORF, Franz; Austrian; Generalfeldmarschall; (1852-1925):
Austro-Hungarian Army. Eastern Front: Chief of General Staff Aug/14-Mar/17. Advocated preventive war against Italy and Serbia. Successful in Gorlice-Tarnow offensive, Poland, May/Jun/15. Failed to subdue Serbia. Relieved Mar/17. Italian Front: South Tyrol Mar/17-Jul/18. Dismissed Jul/18.
16. CURRIE, Arthur; Canadian; General; (1876-1933):
Canadian Territoral Army, British Columbia: Western Front: 2nd Infantry Brigade, 1st Canadian Division Feb/15-Jun/16. Neuve Chappelle Mar/15, Second Battle of Ypres Apr/15. Held firm in first German gas attack. 1st Canadian Division Jun/16-Jun/17. First Battle of Somme and Vimy Ridge Apr/17. Canadian Corps Jun/17-Nov/18. Took Hill 70 Aug/17. Second Battle of Passchendaele Nov/17. Capture of Passchendaele Ridge Nov/17. Battle of Amiens Aug/18.
17. ENVER PASHA (PASA), Turkish; War Minister; (1881-1922):
Turkish Army. Led Turkey into the Great War. Caucasus Front: Turkish Third Army Nov/14-Dec/15. Disaster at Savikamis. Dardanelles/Gallipoli: Success with withdrawal of the British Dec/15-Jan/1916. Palestine Front: Palestine 1917-18, his interference aided Allenby. Fled to Berlin Nov/18.
18. FALKENHAYN, Erich von; German; General and War Minister; (1861-1922):
German (Prussian) Army. Minster of War Aug/14-Feb/15 and Chief of General Staff Sep/14-Aug/16. Western Front: Unsuccessful implementation of Schlieffen Plan led to failure in Flanders in 1914; fateful unwillingness to take risks. First to use toxic gas on Western Front - chlorine - Apr/15. Instigator of unsuccessful Battle of Verdun Feb/16, accepting rationale of 'war of attrition' against French. Eastern Front: Successful on Eastern Front 1915. Victor of Poland and Serbia. Relieved (Hindenburg and Ludendorff) Aug/16. Ninth Army in Rumania Sep/16. Victor over Rumania 1916. Palestine Front: Central Powers Forces Jul/17-Mar/18. Unsuccessful at halting Anglo/Arab advance. Relieved Feb. 1918. Eastern Front: Tenth Army in Lithuania Feb-Nov/18.
19. FISHER, John Arbuthnot - JACKIE; British; Admiral; (1841-1920):
Royal Navy. First Sea Lord Oct/14-May/15. Highly effective organiser and moderniser of British Navy who foresaw unrestricted U-boat warfare. Success in Battle of Falklands Dec/14. Resigned over Dardanelles May/15.
20. FOCH, Ferdinand; French; Maréchal and Field Marshal (British); (1851-1929):
French Army (Artillery and Infantry). Western Front: XX Corps Aug/14. Metz sector. Success in Battle of the Frontiers. Ninth Army Aug-Oct/14. Some success in battles of 1st Marne Sep/14, Yser Oct/14 and 1st Ypres Nov/14. Assistant to Joffre in French Forces in North Oct-Dec/14. Northern Army Group Jan/14-Dec/16. Somme. Stabilised the Northern Sector. Shunted into series of consultative jobs principally Study Bureau for Inter-Allied Questions Sep/16-May/17. Chief of War Minister's General Staff May/17-Feb/18. Co-ordinator of Anglo-French forces on Western Front Mar/18 plus Italy May/18. Allied Commander in Chief Apr/18. Led successful final offensive Jul-Nov/18. Victor on Western Front.
21. FRANCHET d'ESPREREY, Louis Felix Marie Francois; French; Maréchal; (1856-1942):
French Army. Western Front: I Corps Aug/14 and Fifth Army Sep/14, strategic success at the Battle of the Marne. Eastern Army Group Mar/15-Jan/17. Northern Army Group Jan/17-May/18. Failure at Chemin des Dames May/18. Balkans Front: Allied Armies in Macedonia May-Nov/18. Victor over the Bulgarians.
22. FRENCH, John Denton Pinkstone; British; Field Marshal;(1852-1925):
Royal Navy and British Army (Cavalry). Western Front: British Expeditionary Force Aug/14-Dec/15. Subject to depression and precipitate action. Successful retreat from Mons Aug-Sep/14. Loos Sep/14. High casualties at 1st and 2nd Ypres Oct-Nov/14 and Apr-May/15. Replaced (Haig) Dec/15. Home Forces Dec/15-Nov/18.
23. FULLER, John Fredrick Charles - BONEY; British; Major General; (1878-1966):
British Army (10th Middlesex): Western Front: Oxfordshire and Buckingham Light Infantry Jul/15-Nov/16. Chief of Staff Heavy Branch Machine Gun Corps/Tank Corps Dec/16-Nov/18. Proposed to GHQ (Haig) idea of tank attack in Cambrai Sector Jun/17. Subsequently led to Battle of Cambrai Nov/17. Author of Plan 1919 (tank tactics) in early 1918.
24. GALLIENI, Joseph Simon; French; Maréchal and War Minister; (1849-1916):
French Army. Western Front: Appointed to French GHQ but took up post Military Governor of Paris Aug/14-Oct/15. Crucial role in 'Miracle of the Marne'. War Minister Oct/15. Resigned Mar/16. Died May/16.
25. GOLTZ, Freiherr von der; German; Pasha, Field Marshal (Turkish); (1843-1916):
German Army. Western Front: Governor-General of Belgium Aug-Nov/14, Turkish Army. Mesopotamian Front: Adjutant General to Sultan of Turkey
1914. Sixth Turkish Army in Iraq Oct/15-May/16. Successful in Battle and Siege of Kut al Amara Sep/15-Apr/16. Took surrender of British Maj. Gen. Townshend and 10,000 British/Indian troops at Kut al Amara Apr/16. Died Baghdad 1916, probably poisoned by Young Turks.
26. GORT, John Standish Vereker: British; Field Marshal; (1886-1946); VC:
British Army (Grenadier Guards). Western Front: 3rd Guards Brigade 1918. Won VC 1918.
27. GOUGH, Hubert de la Poer; British; General; (1870-1963):
British Army (Cavalry 6th Lancers). Western Front: Cavalry Brigade Aug/14 and Cavalry Division Oct/14. Cavalry Corps Jul/1915. Reserve (Fifth Army) 1916-May/18. Slogging match of 1st Somme Jul-Nov/16. 3rd Ypres Jul/17 with stale-mate. Relinquished sole command (Plumer) 1917. Heavy loss of terrain and men in Mar/18 German offensive. Replaced (Rawlinson) Mar/18.
28. HAIG, Douglas; British; Field Marshal;(1861-1928):
British Army (Cavalry 17th Lancers). Western Front: I Corps Aug/14-Dec/15. Success in defence in 1st Ypres. BEF Dec/15-Nov/18. Introduced, and solidly supported, tanks (demanded 1,000) Sep/15. Noted for: costly losses (policy of attrition and 'attack at all costs') in 1st Battle of Somme Jul-Nov/16, Arras Apr-May17 and 3rd Ypres Jul-Nov/17 (Passchendaele Oct-Nov/17); success in 'The 100 Days' British Offensive at Amiens Aug/18, The Scarpe Aug/18, Bapaume Sep/18, Havrincourt Sep/18, Cambrai Oct/18, Flanders Sep-Nov/18, Le Cateau Oct/18, The Selle Oct/18 and Sambre Nov/18. British victor on Western Front.
29. HAMILTON, Ian Standish Monteith; General; British; (1853-1947);
Recommended 3 times for VC: British Army. Home: Central Force Aug/14-Apr/15. Dardanelles/Gallipoli: Mediterranean Expeditionary Force Apr-Oct/15. Led British, French and ANZAC troops in series of cumulative disasters at Cape Helles, Anzac Cove and Sulva Bay with immense losses. Replaced (Monro) Oct/15.
30. HINDENBURG, Paul von Beneckendorff und von; German; Generalfeldmarchal; (1847-1934):
German (Prussian) Army. Eastern Front: Eighth Army Aug/1914-15. Success over Russian Tenth Army at Tannenberg Aug/1914 and Masurian Lakes Sep/14. Commander in Chief, Eastern Front Nov/14 with many other victories e.g. over Russian Third Army at Gorlice-Tarnow, Poland, May-Jun/15. Chief of German Army Aug/16-Nov/18. Supported unrestricted submarine warfare 1917-18. Victor over Russia 1917. Disaster of Western Front Offensives (MICHAEL I-III) Mar-Apr/18.
31. HORNE , Henry; British; General; (1861-1929) The Unknown General of the Great War because of lack of biographical data and personal records:
British Army (Royal Artillery). Western Front: Royal Artillery I Corps Aug-Dec 1914. 2nd Division, Jan 1914-Jun 1916 Aubers Ridge, Festubert, May 1915, Loos Sep 1915. XVCorps 1916-1917. Battle of Somme; Mametz Wood and Fricourt Fromelles Jul 1916, Flers Sep 1916. First Army 1917-1918, Arras, Vimy Ridge April 1917, Hill 70 Aug 1917. Held German 'Georgette' offensive at Hazebrouck April 1918. British 'Hundred Days' Offensive Monchy-le-Preux, Cambrai and broke Hindenburg Line Aug-Sep 1918.
32. JELLICOE, John Rushworth; British; Admiral of the Fleet; (1859-35):
Royal Navy. Grand Fleet Aug/14. Successful policy of blockade of German High Fleet in North Sea. Jutland May/1916. Tactical failure, strategic success. Defective design of shell magazine on capital ships. First Sea Lord Nov-Dec/17. Convoy trials started Apr/17. Dismissed Dec/17. Noted for policy of primacy for 'Preservation of the Grand Fleet'.
33. JOFFRE, Joseph Jacques Césaire; French; Maréchal de France; (1852-1931):
French Army (Engineers). Western Front. Commander in Chief of French Armies 1914-16. Joint author Plan XV11. Successful defense at Battle of the Marne Sep/14. Created Sixth French Army Sep/14. Disasters of Champagne Dec/14-Nov/15 and Artois May-Jun/15 with very high casualties. Denuded Verdun forts of many vital heavy guns 1915-16 before surprise German Offensive Feb/16. Relinquished sole command (Castenau) Dec/16. Replaced (Nivelle) Dec/16. Military Adviser to Government, Presidency of Supreme War Council 1917-18.
KEMAL, Mustafa; Turkish: See ATATURK.
34. KITCHENER, Horatio Herbert - K of K; British; Field Marshal and Secretary of State for War; (1850-1916):
British Army (Engineers). Secretary of State for War Aug/14. Cabinet's Chief Adviser. Kitchener's New Armies, 1914-15. Francophile and supporter of French Army. Held responsible for shell shortage on Western front 1915 and failure of Gallipoli/Dardanelles Expedition Campaign 1915-16. Drowned in sinking by German mine of cruiser HMS Hampshire off Orkney Islands Jun/16 during mission to Russia.
35. KLUCK, Alexander von; German: General; (1846-1934):
German Army. Western Front: First Army 1914-15. Made disastrous change to Schlieffen Plan - striking East of Paris instead of West of Paris. Defeated at 1st Battle of the Marne. German advance halted Oct/14. Start of trench-warfare. Wounded Mar/15. Retired 1916. No further active service.
36. KOLCHAK, Alexander Vasilevich; Russian; Admiral; (1874-1920):
Russian Navy. Baltic Fleet Aug/14-Aug/16. Russian Black Sea Fleet Aug/16-Jan/17. Resigned Jun/17. Fled to Britain/USA after 1917 Revolution. Russian Defence Minister Oct/18.
37. LANZREZAC; Charles Louis Marie; French; General; (1852-25):
French Army. Western Front: Fifth Army Aug/14. Successfully challenged troop dispositions at Sambre in Plan XVII. Relieved Sep/14. No other active service post.
38. LETTOW-VORBECK, Paul Emil von; German; Colonel; (1870-1946):
German Army. African Campaign: Sole Military Commander German East Africa Colonial Army Jan/14-Nov/18. Repulsed landing and forced evacuation of British/Indian Force 'B' at Tanga Nov/14. Evaded capture whilst waging effective guerilla war with only 14,000 soldiers across British-, German-, and Portuguese-East Africa from Jan/14-Nov/18. Inflicted great losses on British and Empire Colonial troops. Succeeded in German High Command strategy of causing significant diversion of British assets (>100,000 men) from other theatres of war.
39. LIMAN von SANDERS, Otto - LIMAN; German; General, Field Marshal (Turkish); (1855-1929):
Turkish Army. Dardanelles/Gallipoli: Turkish First Army Aug/14 and the Turkish Fifth Army Mar/15-Mar/17 on Gallipoli. Successfully contained Sulva landings Aug/15. Palestine Front: Palestine. Fourth, Seventh and Eighth Turkish Armies in Syria and Palestine Mar/17- Nov/18.
40. LUDENDORFF, Erich; German; General; (1865-37):
German (Prussian) Army. Western Front: Modified with Moltke, Schlieffen Plan 1914. Second Army. Quartermaster in Chief and Deputy (to Hindenburg) Chief of Staff Aug/14. Successful siege of Liége Aug/14. Eastern Front: Chief of Staff (under Hindenburg) Eighth Army, Aug/14. Successes against Russian Army at Tannenberg Aug/14 and Masurian Lakes Sep/14. Quarter-Master-General and Deputy (to Hindenburg) Chief of General Staff Aug/16. Promoted Hindenburg Programme of Munitions 1916. Co-victor over Russia 1917. Supported unrestricted submarine warfare 1917-18. Tactically sound but strategically disastrous March Offensive using 'flexible offensive' tactics on Western Front (Plan MICHAEL) Mar/18. Resigned Oct/18.
41. MacARTHUR, Douglas; American; General of the Army; (1880-1964):
American Army (Engineers). Home: Rainbow Division 1917. Western Front: Brigade, Division and Chief of Staff American Expeditionary Force (AEF) 1917-18.
42. MACKENSEN, August von; German; Generalfeldmarschall; (1849 -1945) [Amazingly, rumoured to be disgraced former British Major General Hector McDonald]:
German Army (Cavalry 1st Leib-Hussars). Eastern Front: Eighth Army Aug/1914. Success over Russian Army at Brest-Litovsk Aug/15. Ninth Army (under Hindenburg) 1914. Successfully recaptured Lodz. Eleventh Army Apr/14. Successful breakthrough at Gorlice-Tarnow, Poland Jun/15. Army Group Mackensen (including Austro-Hungarian and Bulgarian Armies) Jul/15-Nov/18. Victor over Serbia Nov/15 and Rumania 1916.
43. MANNERHEIM, Karl Gustav - EMIL; Finnish; Field Marshal; (1867-1951);
Finnish Army. Eastern Front: Russian Army 1914-17; White Finnish Army 1918.
44. MARSHALL, George; American; General of the Army; (1880-1959);
American Army (Infantry). Western Front: Chief of Operations 1st US Division 1917 and First US Army 1918, Meuse and Argonne Offensive Sep-Nov/18.
45. MODEL, Walther; German; Generalfeldmarschall; (1891-1945):
German Army (Infantry). Home: General Staff 1918.
46. MOLTKE, Helmuth, Johannes Ludwig von - THE YOUNGER; German: (1848 -1916):
German Army: Chief of General Staff 1903-14. Disastrous alterations to objectives of Schlieffen Plan in France, Netherlands and Eastern Front Aug-Sep/14. Unsuccessful in 1st Battle of the Marne Sep/14. Dismissed Sep/14.
47. MONASH, John; Australian; Major General; (1865-1931);
Australian Army. Dardanelles/Gallipoli: Egypt, 4th Infantry Brigade, Australian Imperial Force, Egypt Feb-Mar/15 . Anzac Cove Apr-Dec/15. Home (UK): 3rd Division II, ANZAC Corps Jan-Oct/16. Western Front: 3rd Division, ANZAC Corps Nov/16-May/18. Captured Messines Ridge Jun/17 and Broodseine Oct/17. Passchendaele Oct-Nov/17. Australian Corps (all 5 Australian Divisions) May-Nov/18. Successful break-though to Somme, Le Hamel Jul/18 (with unique use of tanks and airlift [world first]), Amiens Aug/18, Mont St. Quentin Aug-Sep/14, and Hindenburg Line Sep-Oct/18.
48. NICHOLAS, Nicolai Nikolaevich, Russian; Grand Duke; (1856-1929):
Russian Army. Commander in Chief, Russian Army Aug/14-Sep/15. Stabilised retreat against German Eighth to Twelfth Armies. Posted to Caucasus as Governor General Sep/14-Mar/19 relinquishing to Tsar post of Commander in Chief Aug/15.
49. NIVELLE, Robert Georges; French (British mother); General; (1856-1924):
French Army (Artillery). Western Front: Artillery Regiment Aug/14-Nov/15. III Corps Nov/15-Apr/16. Second Army Apr/16. Recapture of Fort Douaumont,Verdun 1916. Leading sponsor of 'creeping barrage' concept. Commander in Chief Dec/16. Unsuccessful and costly Nivelle Offensive between Rheims and Soissons - Chemin des Dames - Apr/17 led to French mutinies Apr/17. Court of Inquiry verdict of 'Not Guilty of Misconduct' May/17. Dismissed May/17. Posted to North Africa Dec/17-Dec/18.
50. PERSHING, John Joseph (BLACK JACK); American; General 5 Stars; (1860-1948):
American Army. Western Front: American Expeditionary Force (AEF) May/17. Released African-American troops to be commanded by French Army Nov/17. Attached some white American troops to French units (Foch) against German MICHAEL Offensive Mar-Jun/18. US First Army Sep/18. Successful Battles of Saint-Mihiel and Meuse-Argonne Sep-Oct/18. American victor (if belated entrant into war) over Germany.
51. PETAIN, Henri-Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph; French; Maréchal de France; (1856-51):
French Army (Infantry). Western Front: Brigade Aug/14 and Division Sep/14, Fifth Army Aug/1914. XXXIII Corps Oct/1914. Success at Arras May/15. Second Army in Champagne Jul/15. and Verdun Feb-Apr/16. Successful defence; established La voie sacreé - vital supply route for Verdun. Army Group of the Centre May/19. Commander in Chief May/17-Nov/18 (but sub-ordinate to Foch). Successfully resolved 1917 French army mutinies. Capture of Chemin des Dames. Usually claimed as author of immortal Verdun slogans Ils ne passeront pas (They shall not pass) Courage: on les aura (Don't worry - we'll get 'em). But the former slogan was probably coined by General Georges Nivelle.
52. PLUMER, Herbert Charles Onslow (DRIP or DADDY) - said (incorrectly) to be inspiration for 'Col. Blimp'; British; Field Marshal; (1857-1932):
British Army (Infantry). Western Front: V Corps Aug/14. II Army Corps Dec/1914. Second Army May/15 (Plumer's Force). Ypres May/15. Captured Messines Ridge Jun/17. Took over battle for Passchendaele Oct-Nov/17 in 3rd Battle of Ypres. Italian Front: made solid gains post-Caporetto campaign Nov/17-Feb/18. Western Front: Successfully held Ludendorff Offensive (MICHAEL I-III) Mar-Apr/18.
53. PUTNIK, Radomir; Serbian; Field Marshal; (1847-1917):
Serbian Army. Balkans Front: Chief of Staff - with virtual autonomy - to Crown Prince Alexander of Serbia Aug/14-May/17. Success at Cer Mountain and Kolubria River. Retreated from Albania. Relocated Serbian Army to Salonika via Albania, Montenegro and Corfu 1915-16. Died May/17.
54. RAWLINSON, Henry Seymour, British; General; (1864-1925):
British Army. Western Front: Led detachment at Antwerp Oct/14. Commander IV Corps of BEF at Ypres Oct/14. Innovative use of artillery at Neuve Chapelle
Mar/15, only partial success with gas at Loos, Sept/15. Commander of Fourth Army of BEF Dec/15-Nov/18. Mixed success at First Battle of the Somme Jul/Dec 1916.
Briefly Commanded Second and Fifth Armies (defence of Amiens Mar/18). British representative to Supreme War Council from Feb/18. Successfully commanded attacks at Amiens and on Hindenburg Line Aug/Oct 1918.
55. ROBERTSON, William - WULLY: British; Field Marshal; (1860-1933):
British Army (16th Lancers - enlisted as private). Western Front: Quartermaster General and Chief of Staff BEF (with most of power of Secretary of State) Jan/14-Dec/15. Home UK: Chief of Imperial General Staff Dec/15-Nov/18. Leading proponent of 'Western Front First' policy. Dismissed 1918. Home Command 1918.
56. RUPPRECHT; Crown Prince of Bavaria; German; Generalfeldmarschall; (1869-
German (Bavarian) Army. Western Front: Sixth Army Aug/14-Aug/16. Army Group Prince Ruppert Aug/16-Nov/18. For the duration of the war, from the deployment of the Schlieffen Plan Aug/16 to Plan MICHAEL I-III Mar/18, he led his Bavarian Army and Army Group with distinction and courage.
57. SERRAIL, Maurice Paul Emmanuel; French; General; (1856-1929):
French Army. Western Front: Third Army Aug/14. Balkans Front: French Army of the Orient (Macedonia) 1915. Commander in Chief of all Allied troops on Macedonian Front Jan/17. Dismissed Dec/17.
58. SMITH-DORRIEN, Horace Lockward; British; General; (1858-1930):
British Army. Western Front: II Army Corps Aug-Oct/14. Successful holding action at Mons and Le Cateau Aug/14. Second Army Dec/14. First Battle of Ypres Oct-Nov/14. Dismissed, famously, by Robertson, COS, (for French, Commander in Chief of BEF) as 'orace you're for 'ome' May/1915.
59. STRAUSSENBURG, Arthur Arz von; Austro-Hungarian; General; (1857-1935);
Austro-Hungarian Army. Eastern Front: Divisional Commander 1914. Army Commander 1916. Home: Austro-Hungarian Chief of General Staff Mar/17-Nov/18.
60. TIRPITZ, Alfred von; German; Grossadmiral: (1849-1930):
German Navy. Grand Admiral Aug/14-Mar/16. 'Father of the German Navy'. Converted to support of unrestricted sub-marine warfare. Resigned Mar/1916.
61. TOWNSHEND, Charles Vere Ferrers; British, General; (1861-1924):
British Army. Mesopotamian Front: British/Indian Army in Mesopotamia Nov/15. Defeated at Ctesiphon Nov/15. Retreated to Kut Al Amara Dec/15. Siege of Kut Al Amara Dec/15-Apr/16. Surrendered Kut Al Amara to Turks with 10,000 British and Indian troops Apr/1916. Captivity in Constantinople Apr/16-Nov/18. Turkish surrender negotiations on island of Mudros 1918.
62. TRENCHARD, Hugh- BOOM: British; Marshal of the Royal Airforce; (1873-1956):
British Air Force. Western Front: 1st Wing RFC in France Nov/14. Home UK: Selected Chief of Staff RAF Jan-Apr/18. Organiser and establisher of Royal Airforce Apr/18. Resigned Apr/18. Western Front: Independent Air Force (Strategic Bombers) Apr-Nov/18.
63. WAVELL, Archibald Percival; British; Field Marshal; (1883-1950); MC (First gazetted):
British Army (Black Watch). Western Front: 3rd Division, Ypres Jun-Jul/15. Wounded, lost eye. Caucasus Front: Staff GHQ liaison with Grand Duke Nicolas Duke Oct/16-May/17. Palestine Front: Represented Chief Imperial General Staff in Egypt 1917-18. Brigadier General Staff XX Corps.
64. WILSON, Henry Hughes; British; Field Marshal; (1864-1922):
ritish Army (Rifle Brigade). Western Front: Francophile Vice Chief of Staff Aug/14. Mediocre performance at Mons Aug/14. Demoted to French Liaison Officer 1915. IV Corps Dec/15-Dec/16. Loss of Vimy Ridge Sep/17. Dismissed Nov/16. British Military Representative on Supreme Council Nov/17-Feb/18. Chief Imperial General Staff Feb-Sep/18. Instrumental in Foch's appointment as Supreme Commander Allied Armies on Western Front. Home: Eastern Command Sep-Nov/18.